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Date:   23 June, sanadka 2011

Taariikhdii, howlihii & waxqabadkii ra'iisul wasaare Prof. C/weli Max'ed Cali "Gaas"

Howlihii & waxqabadkii ra'iisul wasaare Prof. C/weli Max'ed Cali "Gaas".

Summary of Qualifications

Extensive experience in teaching, research, statistics, growth and development, international political economy, international economics, Money and Banking, applied macroeconomics, applied microeconomics, monetary theory and policy, public choice and public finance.


Ph.D. in Economics, January 2000, George Mason University Fairfax, VA
Concentration: Applied microeconomics, applied macroeconomics, public finance, public choice, and monetary theory. MA in Public Administration, June 1999, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Cambridge, MA. Concentration: Project appraisal and management, environmental economics, taxation and public finance.
Certificate in Taxation, June 1999, International Tax Program, Harvard University Law School Cambridge, MA. Concentration: Transfer pricing, comparative income taxation, comparative tax administration, value-added tax, tax design and tax administration, tax analysis and revenue forecasting.

MA in Economics, 1988, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. Concentration: Economic development and international trade. BA in Economics (highest honors), 1984, Somali National University Mogadishu, Somalia. Seminars Forecasting Methods and Applications: Institute for Professional Education, Nov. 12-14, 2001, Arlington, VA>
Basic SAS: Software Seminars, Inc, August 21-23rd, 2000, Richmond, VA
Basic Skills for New Supervisors: Academy for Staff Development, Sep-Oct. 2000 Richmond, VA. Public finance and expenditure: International Monetary Fund Institute, June-August 1989, Washington, DC. Project Management and Evaluation: Management Training and Development Institute, July 1988, Washington, DC

Refereed Publications
In Colombia, It is All about Institutions, Revista Civilizar de Empresa Y Economia, Vol. 1, December 2009-June 2010, pp. 23-35. A sensitivity analysis approach on the effect of foreign aid on growth, with (Hodan Isse and Bill Peek), Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Vol. 10 (3), pp. 97-110, 2009.

How robust is the effect of foreign aid on growth, with (Hodan Isse and Bill Peek), Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 20, pp. 4-14, Fall 2009 (Lead Article). The determinants of crime in Virginia: An empirical analysis (with Bill Peek), forthcoming in Contemporary Issues in Educational Research, Vol. 2 (4), pp. 1-11, 2009 (Lead Article).
Foreign aid and free trade and their effect on income: A Panel Analysis (with Hodan Isse), Journal of Developing Areas, 2007, Vol. 41(1), pp. 127-14.

Bureaucracy and charities: The economics of private voluntary aid, Journal of Business and Economic Research, 2007, Vol. 5 (2), pp. 73-78. An empirical analysis of the determinants of foreign aid: A panel approach (with Hodan Isse), International Advances in Economic Research, 2006, Vol. 12 (2), pp. 241-250. Cited by 6. The unvarnished views of a radical economist, Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 2005, Vol. 10 (3), pp. 97-105.

Fiscal policy and economic growth: the effect of fiscal volatility, Journal of Business and Economics Research, 2005, Vol. 3 (5), pp. 17-25. An empirical analysis of the effect of aid on growth (With Hodan Isse), International Advances in Economic Research, 2005, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 1-11, Lead Article. Cited by 6. Democracy and durability: empirical analysis and causality test, Atlantic Economic Journal, 2005, Vol. 33 (1), pp. 105-114.

Is democracy a prerequisite for political stability? International Business and Economics Research Journal, October 2004, Vol. 3 (10), pp. 39-47, Won the Best Paper Award. Political freedom and the stability of economic policy (with Hodan Isse), Cato Journal, (Fall 2004), Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 251-60. Cited by 7.
Determinants of economic corruption: A cross-country comparison (with Hodan Isse), Cato Journal, Winter Issue 2003, Vol. 22 (3), pp. 449-64. Cited by 58. Institutional differences as sources of growth differences, Atlantic Economic Journal, 2003, Vol. 31(4): pp. 348-62. Cited by 16 Institutional distortions, economic freedom and growth (with Mark Crain), Cato Journal, Winter Issue 2002, Vol. 21 (3), pp. 415-26. Cited by 63.
Political regimes, economic freedom, institutions and growth (with Mark Crain), Journal of Public Finance and Public Choice, 2001, Vol. XIX (1), pp. 3-22, Lead Article. Cited by 13
Political stability, stable economic policies and growth: an empirical investigation, Atlantic Economic Journal, March Issue 2001, Vol. 29, pp. 87-106. Won the 2001 Best Article Award. Cited by 13. Economic freedom, democracy and growth, Journal of Private Enterprise, 1997, vol. 13, pp. 1-20, Lead Article. Cited by 30.
Other Publications

Freedom, policy stability and economic growth among nations, Ph.D. Dissertation, 1999.
The possibility of tax reform program in Somalia, MA Thesis, 1988. Refereed Conference Proceedings. Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: Volatility Vs. The Levels, Conference on Emerging Issues in International Accounting, Padua, Italy, June 24-26, 2004.

Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: The Effect of Fiscal Volatility, European Applied Business Research Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, June 14-18, 2004. Is Democracy a Prerequisite for Political Stability? (Won the Best Paper Award), European Applied Business Research Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, June 14-18, 2004.
Conference Presentations
Inequality and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis, Presented at 17th Annual Conference of the American Society of Business and Behavioral Science, Las Vegas, NV, February 18-21, 2010.

A Sensitivity Analysis Approach of the Effect of Aid on Growth, presented at the 65th International Atlantic Economic Conference, Warsaw, Poland, on April 9-13 2008. Foreign Aid, Poverty, and Growth, presented at the 63rd International Atlantic Economic Conference, Madrid, Spain, on March 14-18 2007.
How Robust is the Effect on Aid on Growth, presented at the 61st International Atlantic Economic Conference, Berlin, Germany, on March 15-19, 2006. Foreign aid and free Trade and their effect on income: A Panel Analysis, presented at the 59th International Atlantic Economic Conference, London, UK, on March 9-13, 2005. The Determinants of Foreign Aid, Presented at The 57th International Atlantic Economic Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, on March 10-14, 2004.
Institutional differences as sources of growth differences, presented at the annual meeting of the International Atlantic Economic Society, Washington, DC, October 10-13, 2002.

Determinants of Economic Corruption, Presented at ATLAS 35th Workshop, Caracas, Venezuela, November 24-26, 1999. Growth, Economic Freedom and Further Research, Presented at the Economic Freedom Network Annual Conference, Vancouver, Canada, October 20-21, 1999. Stability, credibility, economic freedom and growth, presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Private Enterprise Education in Dallas, TX, April 5-7, 1998.
Economic freedom, institutions, and growth, presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Economic Association in Atlanta, Georgia, November 21-23, 1997.

Other Presentations

Comparative Development: Differences and Commonalities among Developing Countries, Presented at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda, May 13-14, 2009. Globalization and World Trade, Presented at Busoga University, Kampala, Uganda, May 15, 2009. The Importance of Institutions in Nation Building: A Workshop for Somali-Nordic Communities, Helsinki, Finland, May 2-3, 2009. Somali Diaspora in North America Changing the American Landscape, One City at a Time: Challenges, Successes and Setbacks, Presented at Spanga Tensta, Stadsdel, Sweden, April 29, 2009.

The Myth of Return: Can Education Bridge the Gap Between the Ideal and the Real, Presented at the Somali European Youth Seminar, Stockholm, Sweden, April 29-May 5, 2009. The Challenges Facing Somalia: A Voice of America Seminar, Presented at Voice of America, Washington, DC, February 18, 2009.

Taxation: General Issues and Concepts, Presented at Sergio Arboleda University, Bogota and Santa Marta, Colombia, March 30-April 5, 2008. Modern Monetary Policy and Challenges Facing Central Bankers, Presented at Sergio Arboleda University, Bogota and Santa Marta, Colombia, March 30-April 5, 2008. The International Economy and Globalization, Presented at Sergio Arboleda University, Bogota and Santa Marta, Colombia, March 30-April 5, 2008.
Human Rights and Civil War in Somalia: Stories from a Forgotten Country, Presented at MIT Amnesty International, Boston, MA, February 15, 2008.


1998-1999 Joel Leff Fellowship of Political Economy, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. 1996-1998 Bradley Fellowship, Center for Study of Public Choice, George Mason University. Bradley Fellowship, Center for Study of Public Choice, George Mason University. Bradley Fellowship, Department of Economics, George Mason University

1986-1988 AFGRAD Fellowship, Department of Economics, Vanderbilt University Awards
2009-2010 Summer Research Grant by the Research Council of Niagara University on “Inequality and Economic Growth."

2007-2008 Summer Research Grant by the Research Council of Niagara University on “Corruption, Economic Growth, and Environmental Quality: An Empirical Analysis." 2006-2007 Summer Research Grant by the Research Council of Niagara University on “Foreign Aid, Poverty and Growth".
2005-2006 Summer Research Grant by the Research Council of Niagara University on “How Robust is the Effect of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth". 2004-2005 Summer Research Grant by the Research Council of Niagara University on “An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Foreign Aid: A Panel Approach".
The 2005-2006 Excellence in Research Award, College of Business Administration, Niagara University, May 2006. The 2003-2004 Excellence in Research Award, College of Business Administration, Niagara University, May 2004. The 2001 Best Article Award, Atlantic Economic Journal, October 2002. The Best Paper Award, European Applied Business Research Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, June 2004. Teaching and Academic Experience 08/20/2003-Present. Niagara University, Department of Commerce, Lewiston, NY. Associate Professor of Economics

Taught Advanced Quantitative Methods: The course stresses practical applications of statistics to business. Topics covered include factor analysis, nonparametric statistics, chi square, multiple regression, time series analysis, and statistical process control. Each student is required to complete a project using statistics in solving a realistic business problem.

Taught Managerial Economics: This course is a combined Microeconomics and Macroeconomic analysis. The microeconomic component of the course examines decision making by the individual economic unit, addressing such topics as: demand and supply, price and output determination, cost behavior, profit maximization, and competition. The macroeconomic component examines models to explain: national output, inflation, and unemployment; and how fiscal and monetary policies stabilize the economy.

Taught Money and Banking: This course covers the functioning of the money and banking system and its relationship with the rest of the economy. The course considers the nature of money, the markets that allocate money to a variety of uses, the institutions that create and control the money stock, the flow of money and how it is related to employment levels, GDP, inflation and interest rates, and international financial matters. Much attention is paid to problems and issues requiring the attention of policymakers. Special attention is given to the role of the Federal Reserve System as it affects the economy through the monetary policy.

Taught Intermediate Microeconomics: This course covers intermediate level microeconomics theory relevant to business decision-making. The course is intended to give students an understanding of the economic environment within which businesses operate and to help you to learn to use economics to analyze the reasons for business decision-making and how economic decisions are generally made.

Taught Economic Growth and Development: This course introduce students to the study of the process of modern economic development. In doing so, it examines how standard micro-and macro-economic theories apply in the presence of the market failures and weak formal institutions that characterize developing countries. In the course of defining what development is, economists and social scientists use terms like poverty, inequality, illiteracy, quality of life, etc. Economic theory provides the fundamentals, a skeleton that can best serve as the framework for discussions about economic development. At the completion of this course, students will have a better understanding of what is meant by “development.” Students will also be familiar with several theories of development, and what implications they have for this important part of the world. Finally, this course will not focus on any country or region in particular, but will present the experiences of a number of countries to illustrate major points.

Taught Global Economics: This course examines the interdependence of economies to explain macroeconomic developments in a global context. Models are developed to explain Gross Domestic Product, unemployment, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates, and how economic policy at the national level is impacted by economic policy and economic conditions abroad. This course examines capital markets, foreign exchange markets, and labor markets in both a national and international context. Case studies and current economic developments are examined in a global perspective.

6/99-8/99 Harvard University Cambridge, MA

Teaching Fellow, Harvard Institute for International Development (HIID). Assisted the core faculty in teaching the summer executive program on environmental economics and policy analysis (EEPA). My assignment was to teach and assist with the research projects of students taking the methods track (which is heavy in economic theory and quantitative methods).
Prepared course material for class presentation. Held after class review sessions and if necessary one-on-one tutoring. Graded problem sets, homework assignments and final course papers.

9/98-6/99 Harvard University Cambridge, MA.
Teaching fellow, John F. Kennedy School of Government. Assisted the core faculty in teaching a graduate level course: markets and market failures. The course was microeconomics applied to policy issues. It applied microeconomic reasoning to public issues, policies, and programs. It considered economic incentives and organizations; models of economic behavior, including markets, the absence of markets, and interventions in markets; the price system and how it works; and policy objectives and instruments. Prepared course material for class discussion.

Held after class review sessions and if necessary one-to-one tutoring. Graded problem sets, homework assignments and term papers.

1/93-5/98 Northern Virginia Community College Alexandria, VA.
Adjunct Professor of Economics, Department of Social Science and Public Service. Taught principles of economics: microeconomics and macroeconomics. These courses covered a wide range of economic concepts. The macroeconomic course covered aggregate economic activity including national income and output, unemployment, money, and inflation. The microeconomic course covered economic behavior at the level of individual households and firms. It presented topics that include scarcity and choice, demand and supply, production and cost, and product and factor markets.

Advised students about the course material and other academic problems. Demonstrated good and effective teaching methods. Received outstanding evaluations from students year after year. Assisted the department in student data collection, enrollment analysis and forecasting. Non-academic Work Experience  6/2000-8/2003
Commonwealth of Virginia, Richmond, VA

Research and Forecast Manager. Serve as a Project Manager for preparation of the annual state responsible inmate admission and population forecasts using explanatory models, time series models, and simulation techniques. Collect, analyze and organize data for statewide state responsible population forecast. Attend policy and Technical forecasting committee meetings, briefing committees on forecasting issues and methodology.
Develop forecast and present forecast to committee members. Obtained various Data needed for forecasting, develop and maintain databases for research needs and create final forecasting and accuracy reports. Prepare tables, charts, and written research reports depicting results of statistical analyses. Present research findings to various policy makers and practitioners. Explain research methods and findings, interpreting findings in a manner appropriate for particular audiences.
Assist the agency data analysis, interpretation and presentation to different state agencies.
Produce annual forecasting and prepare monthly accuracy forecast reports. Coordinate, compile, edit and document the entire complex forecasting work done by various state agencies. Responsible for the design and implementation of program evaluation studies.
Serve as Project Manager for preparation of fiscal legislative impact studies.
Supervise data management activities to ensure database integrity.
Member, Technical Advisory Committee of the Secretary of Public Safety.

10/88-1/91 Ministry of Finance and Revenue Mogadishu, Somalia. Assistant Director, Research and Statistics.

A. Initiated a comprehensive study of Somalia’s tax structure, design and administration.
B. Evaluated the impact of alternative taxes on saving, investment and income distribution.
C. Collected data of potential taxpayers to assess tax capacity, tax arrears and tax gaps.
D. Forecasted tax revenues using ARIMA modelling, Typical Taxpayer micro-simulation       
    modelling, and GDP-based Macro-simulation model.
E. Forecasted tax revenues and proposed necessary changes to the Minister.
F Proposed a more flexible tax system that is responsive to taxpayer concerns.
G. Helped create an efficient and customer friendly tax environment.


Ministry of Finance and Revenue Mogadishu, Somalia. Director, Excise Tax Department

o Assisted the director in the assessment, supervision, and the collection of excise tax.
o Monitored and motivated employees reach targeted revenues.
o Mediated and solved disputes between taxpayers and tax assessors.
o Facilitated inter-departmental exchange of taxpayer information.
o Helped the director introduce the necessary changes to make the excise tax system an instrument of stabilization and resource mobilization.

Consulting Work 6/2008-8/2008

Consultant for the UNDP-QUEST program, Puntland, Somalia. The QUEST initiative, modelled after the UNDP global initiative of Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN), which encourages expatriate nationals to volunteer their expertise in the service of their homelands for short periods of time, proposes to bring the skills of Somali professionals in the diaspora to Somalia on a short-term, voluntary basis. By doing so, three major needs are addressed:-
1. reducing the brain drain
2. supporting lasting peace in Somalia
3. increasing participation of the Somali diaspora in the creation of a conducive environment for sustainable human development.

Through the project, diaspora expertise is infused into the national development process and assist key service provider institutions in the social and governance sectors to improve their efficiency and effectiveness in delivering social services and building best practices of management. The duration of deployment of Diaspora experts ranges from 3-12 months and experts are hired and evaluated by the recipient organization, though paid by UNDP (air fare and living allowance). In this way, the project contributes to deploying Somali expertise to Somali organizations utilizing the unique perspectives, technical skills, cultural knowledge and sensitivity of Somali professionals from the diaspora, thus reducing the dependency on international experts in development programs and Somali institutions.

Under this program, I taught economics at Puntland State University in Garowe, Somalia. I also provided lectures to the faculty of business administration through the training of the trainers program. Helped also the university on curriculum development.

11/2005-3/2006 UNDP, Somalia Nairobi, Kenya
Consultant for the Joint Needs Assessment (JNA) on Fiscal Framework in the Macroeconomic Cluster.

. The Economic Policy (EP) Cluster within the Joint Needs Assessment (JNA) had the overall responsibility to assess economic policy and management in Somalia. The EP Cluster is divided into 6 sub-clusters (Stability and Growth; Public Financial Management; Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations; Civil Service Institutions; Monetary Policy and Financial Institutions; Data Development). Assessing the fiscal framework needed in Somalia for growth and stability is an integral part of the sub cluster on Stability and Growth.

1. Undertook an in-depth assessment of the existing fiscal framework and other financing structures: Budgets for development plans, User fees for schooling, health service, etc. and other financing structures in Somalia

2. Assessed the scope for increasing taxation in Somalia (including forecast of public revenue annually for 2007-2011), built on a review of the effectiveness of existing taxation, the effectiveness of user fees and other financing structures currently in use in Somalia, and a proposal for JNA financing 2007-2011, and the current pro-poor and non-JNA expenditures, and a suggestion of the amount of necessary expenditures outside of JNA.

3. Assessed the possibility of designing a tax system that is both efficient and equitable; a tax system that is responsive and conducive to economic activity in Somalia; a tax system that is simple and taxpayer friendly.

4. We put together a framework for a tax system that is both economically and politically feasible but also easy to administer.

5. Assessed the need to establish a tax code that is simple and transparent; a tax code conducive to resource mobilization both foreign direct investment and domestic revenue generation.

6. Assessed the revenue generating capacity; total tax-GDP ratio; and the potential tax base vs. actual tax collections (tax gaps).

7. Assessed tax gaps and proposed solutions and addressed the issue of fiscal federalism.

8. Assessed the need for implementing a tax analysis and revenue forecasting system to assure that the budget is based on a predictable and reliable revenue data.

11/2005-Present. Resource Person for the African Economic Research Consortium Nairobi, Kenya

. Reviewed new PhD thesis proposals for students in degree-awarding universities in Africa entailing an assessment of the clarity of the research problem, familiarity with relevant literature, soundness of the conceptual framework and methodology, clarity of the proposal, soundness of the statement of the problem and project design, contribution to knowledge and articulation of methods used to arrive at various conclusions in the works. We also assess the technical feasibility of the project consistent with a 12-month research cycle, and likely usefulness of the research in informing policy.

. Help students undertake a good research so the students will know what data to collect, what method(s) is/are to be used in data collection and analysis, and seminal and other important literature to be consulted in, say, sample designs, gathering data, or writing the thesis. Our guidance will also assist supervisors in overseeing the preparations of thesis by students.

. Resource persons are also expected to write down critical points on the theses proposals and/or papers—points that will form the resource persons’ critical reports on the theses. These reports are then submitted to the Manager of the program for onward feedback in writing to the concerned students and supervisors. Among other things, the report covers whether the thesis proposal or paper is satisfactory and can lead to a good thesis (a distinct contribution to knowledge); what specific changes (if any) need to be made to improve the thesis research the student is to carry out (or has carried out); and in the case of any thesis proposal or paper that we assess as ‘unsatisfactory’, what are the revisions required so as to shape the future presentations by the students.

Special Skills Language Skills: English, Arabic, Italian, and Somali.

Computer Skills: Windows, Access, Lotus, Excel, Shazam, Eviews, SAS, SPSS, and Stata.
Membership American Economic Association, Southern Economic Association, Atlantic Economic Society, Public Choice Society, and the Association of Private Enterprise Education.
Personal Dynamic, organized and detail oriented with strong motivational and supervisory skills. Project management and evaluation experience.
Traveled throughout Africa, Europe, Middle East and USA.


Professor Jack Helmuth, Former Dean 810-762-3164 jhelmuth@umflint.edu
Professor Dan Tompkins, Dept. Chairman 716-286-8157 dlt@niagara.edu
Professor W. Mark Crain Dissertation Director 610-330-5315 crainm@lafayette.edu
Professor Walter E. Williams Professor 703-993-1148 wwilliam@gmu.edu
Professor David Ellwood Supervisor at Harvard 617-495-1121 David_ellwood@harvard.edu

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